Biomass energy

At the territory of Russian Federation there is a great number of feedstocks (raw materials) for energy generation out of biomass. The annual output of organic waste materials from live stock and agricultural enterprises composes 250 Mio. tonnes. This organic waste can be processed into the first-class biofuel. The most perspective direction in the conditions of Oblast Belgorod is handling the waste of agroindustrial complex. The total waste volume of poultry industry, pig husbandry and stock rearing exceeds 15 Mio. tonnes. Oblast Belgorod is the biggest pork and poultry meat producer in Russia. The territory of the region, which comprises 1% from land’s territory, is the place, where 1,2 tsd tonnes of meat products is produced, i.e. 25% from all russian  industry. 

 

The intensive development of cattle-breeding and poultry industry led to problem of agricultural waste processing. Meanwhile, energy potential of waste processing comprises more than 200 MW of electrical capacity, 80 Mio. mof biogas annually. The volumes of produced waste on the territory of Belgorod region are enough for energy, fuel and warm self supply of all cattle-breeding and poultry industry infrastructures and also for high quality organic fertilizers production, which can provide high crop yield and restore soil crop capacity. 

Therefore, nature potential of Belgorod region is enough to develop renewable power generation. Biogas power plants are the best solution of this task. 

Biogas energy production is save, reliable and economically advantageous alternative to natural gas and centralized power supply. As the raw material for biogas production wastes of livestock, crops, food production and sewage can be used. 

Organic waste is processed into biogas in a biogas plant. 
Application of biogas power plant allows to receive: 

  • Several types of energy sources: electricity, heat, gas, engine fuel.
  • Solution of organic waste utilization problem (waste will be separated into clean water, bio-fertilizer and mineral fertilizer, rich in nitrogen and phosphorous compounds).
  • Independence from rising rates and possible disruptions in gas and electricity supplies.
  • Projected service life – up to 40 years. 
  • Payback period – from 3 up to 7 years (assuming the complex usage of end production)  
  • Heat generation production cost – 0,5-0,6 RUB per kW.h. 

The organic wastes biogas production process lets to prevent the methane outburst into atmosphere. Methane influences 20 times stronger at green house effect, comparing to carbon dioxide, and stays in the atmosphere approximately for 12 years. The production of 1000 m3 provides the substitution of 10 tonnes COemissions. 

The average market price per 1 t CO– 10 EUR. 

Except methane emissions, the storage of organic wastes leads to soil degleyfication problems, alienation of farming lands and groundwater pollution. The agricultural complexes’ waste processing into biogas and fertilizers is the solution of this problem. 

The performance of biogas power plant is continuous. Fresh substratum flows in, fermented - drains off, separating into water, bio - and mineral fertilizers. Biogas power plant performance is regulated by automatics. The staff quantity comprises 2 persons. 

All the components are fed to receiver tanks. After mixing actions the feedstock (raw materials) is delivered to fermenters trough heat exchangers, situated in pump station. As the result of fermentation processes’ biogas is produced , which is then fed into post-digester  reservoir, where the fermentation process comes to an end. Gas, trough the cooling and cleaning systems, is fed to CHP unit, where electric energy and heat are produced, and the product of fermentation (bio-fertilizer) goes to fertilizer storage.
In the end of technological cycle biogas and biofertilizers are produced. 

Biogas – is a flammable gas mixture, obtained during organic matter decomposition as the result of anaerobic microbiological process (methane fermentation). The amount of biogas depends on substratum composition and the volume of organic matter content. From 2 up to 4 kW of electric energy is produced per 1 m3 of biogas. Biogas chemical composition consists of: methane-50-87%, CO(carbon dioxide) – 13-50%, insignificant admixtures of hydrogen, sulphurated hydrogen and ammonia. After purification process biomethane is received, the analogue of natural gas. 10-15% of produced gas goes for fermenter (digester) maintenance (temperature maintenance). The rest of biogas is used for electric and heat energy production. 

Biogas chemical composition        

  

Substance content in a wet fertilizer weight

Kg/t

Total Nitrogen

5,1

Organic nitrogen

2,15

Active nitrogen (NH4-N)

3,05

P20  P=0,96 kg/t

2,20

K20    K=3,8 kg/t

4,60

MgO  Mg=0,18 kg/t

0,30

Organic substances, water and admixtures

other

The advantages of bio-fertilizers:

  • The high plant assimilation coefficient
  • Absence of weed seeds, which can cause yield losses
  • Absence of pathogenic flora
  • The availability of flora,  contributing intensive plants growth
  • No  adaptation period for effective influence
  • Resistance to leaching of soil nutrients
  • Maximal conservation and accumulation of nitrogen
  • High level of environmental friendliness 

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