Wind energy

 

The economical potential of Belgorod region according to energetic  ratings comprises 260 bln kW.h annually which is corresponding to approximately 30% of total electricity production. Wind power plant can work in conjunction with electricity lines or in off-line mode.  WPP are intended for power supply output of private households, for objects, remoted from centralized electricity supply (cell stations, farms, meteorological stations, hunting sectors). Small wind power plants  can work efficiently with low wind speed that is why they have a wide geography of installation. 

Types of wind generation according to capacity measure:

The wind power plant  of small capacity (up to 100 kW.h daily)
is the private wind turbine with unit rating up to 10-20 kW, intended for  independent power supply, mainly used by households, country houses, small economic entities. The mean range of wind speeds for electricity output fall inside the limits of 5-7 m/s.  The mean residual time varies from 20 to 30 years. 

- The wind generator mid size capacity (up to 3000kW.h daily)
The wind generators with unit rating from 20 to 500 kW.h. The wind power plants of this type are indented for power supply output for mid-sized and big load customers – hotels, small manufacturing plants, military bases, camping sites.

- The wind power plants of big capacity
The wind turbines with unit rating over 500 kW.h, are usually set into wind farms – large-sized power assets with 100 MW capacity and average electricity output up to 700 Mw.h daily.

Wind speed - is the most important factor, which effects on energy quantity produced by wind power plant. Wind turbine's output rate increases with windmill's height due to wind speed increaese. 
The quantity of electric energy, produced by wind power utility increases triply due to wind speed acceleration, i.e. if the wind speed is redoubled, the kinetic energy, received by rotating element (rotor),  increases eightfold. Therefore, following the goal in reaching the near-normal distribution characteristics, the usage of wind power plants at the highest possible altitudes is appropriate. 

The payback period of wind power utilities comprises 2-10 years, and depends on annual average wind speed and equipment composition. The decision about wind power plant installation practicability is taken with the consideration of annual average wind speeds, land topography, tasks and objectives in every specific case.
Wind power plants can be subdivided into 2 categories: industrial and domestic (for private usage). Small wind power plants can perform efficiently with low wind speed, that’s why they have wide installation geography. 

There are two main types of wind power plants: Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs)  

and Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) 

The comparison of vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) and horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT)

Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs)

Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT)

For starting the rotation the wind speed 1-1.5 m/s is enough. The nominal capacitance ascension occurs at wind speed from 6 m/s (it depends on generator rating and wing size).

The necessary wind speed to start is 2-3 m/s, that is why horizontal-axis turbines is better to use in regions with strong winds. The nominal capacitance ascension occurs at wind speed 8-10 m/s.

The efficiency output comprises 20-30%.

WG are constantly “downwind” and they don’t need to be turned when the wind flow direction is changing.

The efficiency output comprises 25-35%. The small advantage over VAWT is compensated with the necessity of turning when the wind flow direction is changing

The service life with the correct handling and service – 15-25 years of continuous service. The main load goes at major nodes and WT blades, which need to be replaced after their excessive ware.

The service life with the correct handling and service – 15-25 years of continuous service. The main load goes at mounting bearing assembly and rotation gear.

VAWT is recommended to use in the regions with high turbulence level and constantly changing wind speed.

HAWT are installed in all other cases, i.e. they have wider range of application.


The wind conditions in Belgorod region are marked by south-western winds, southern winds domination in the cold time of the year, by western and north-western winds – in the warm time of the year. The annual mean wind speed in the Region – 2,1-4,1 m/s. 

The usage of wind energy on the territory of Belgorod region is appropriate and worthwhile. 

The annual mean wind speed on the region’s territory is about 2,1 – 4,1 m/s, which opens perspectives to the development of this direction of alternative energy.

More actual capacities for Belgorod region are 5, 10, 20 kW, which can partly supply the needs of farms, small enterprises, private households. The only significant problem of this method is that there is no guaranteed electricity output in the days with slow wind speed. Therefore, this energy source is better to use combining with other energy sources. 

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