Municipal public utility

70 % of energy efficient potential of the country goes for public utility. This branch is the base for supplying social comfort and basic needs of population. Over 80% of public utility services costs comprise electrical supply, heat, gas, hot and cold water supply. The rest are – property management, sewage services, and territory upkeep. Consequently, energy intensity of utility services accomplishment is fore times or even more than indexes of other countries with the same climate conditions.

Main directions for energy efficiency improvement:

  • Fuel economy during the heat and electric power generation and improvement of energy heating system’s efficiency
  • Improvement of current networks and lighting systems
  • Improvement of water facilities
  • “Non - traditional” ways of power saving in public utility (application of deposit water’s, thermal spring’s, heat pump’s and solar collector’s heat; pellet, peat briquette production and it’s application for gas generation and heating; application of waste incineration plants in the systems of distributed generation).
    Russia’s federal law “about energy saving…” operation sequence of energy efficiency of buildings, erections and constructions is separeted to a separate article.  Among the requirements there are: energy efficiency indexes for an object not specified by kind, architectural and space-planning design energy efficiency indexes, scene- and constructional elements efficiency indexes, energy efficiency indexes for materials and technologies, applied during overhaul process.

After distinguishing the energy-efficiency class of apartment house real-estate developer and property owner are obliged to place the energy-efficiency class mark on front of the building. Property owners (owners of buildings or erections) are obliged during building’s operating period not only to guarantee the indexes, but also to carry out actions in order to raise these indexes. This is also an obligation for the person, responsible for housekeeping (or house maintenance).  Once in five years energy-efficiency indexes should be revised for improvement.
A person, responsible for housekeeping, should always call to house owners’ notice offers on energy-efficiency, develop appropriate plans and arrangements, and to regulate heat supply during the heating season.

  1. Brief list of arrangements for raising energy-efficiency indexes off buildings and erections:
     - Raising the thermo resistance of walling constructions, service floor, infloor covering over the basement with heat-insulting boards (foam cellular plastic for plaster, mineral wood boards, glass foam and basalt fibre boards)  will reduce heat losses up to 40%.
    - Elimination of cold (“thermal”) bridges in walls and abutting joints of window casements (efficiency – 2-3%);
    - Installation of interlaminar layers with building’s vent air ventilation  in fences or fronts;
    - Application of heat-resistant plaster;
    - Reduction of glazing space up to statutory values;
    - Glass cladding of balconies and loggias (10-12% effect);
    - Substitution/application of modern windows with multi insulated glazing  (double, triple glazing) and high thermal resistance sashes;   
    - Application of windows with vent-off through sealing space system (4-5%effect)
    - Installation of ventilators and micro ventilation systems;
    - Application of heat-reflecting/sun protecting glass in windows and also by loggias and balconies glazing;
    - Front’s glazing for solar radiation accumulation (from 7 up to 40 effect %);
    - Application of outside glazing with diverse heat accumulation characteristics during summer and winter periods;
    - Installation of additional buildings (“lobbies”) before the entrance doorway and in flats;
  2. Raising the heating system’s energy efficiency:
    -Replacement of cast iron radiators for more efficient aluminum radiators;
    - Installation of thermostats and temperature regulators at the radiators;
    - Application of individual heat consumption metering systems (heat meters, heat and temperature indicators);
    - Realization of arrangements for heat calculation according to amount of installed elements and the place of installed radiators;
    - Installation of heat-reflective screens behind the heating radiators (1-3% effect);
    -  Usage of regulated heat supply (according to daytime, weather conditions, temperature in indoor spaces);
    -  Application of controllers in operational control of heat supply station;
    - Application of individual heat supply controllers;
    - Seasonal heating system flushing;
    - Installation of system water filters in  input and output of heating system;
    - Additional heating due to heat extraction from heated effluents;
    -  Additional heating during soil heat extraction in basement space;
    - Additional heating through excessive air heat extraction in basement space and in exhaust ventilation (possible application for air flow heating, public places warm air heating and entrance vestibules heating);
    - Additional heating and water heating up due to solar collectors and heat storage devices application;
    - Usage of nonmetallic pipelines;
    - Heat insulation of the pipes in cellar space of the building;
    -  A switch to individual heat consumption metering system during maintenance process;
  3. Improvement of ventilation quality. The reduction of expenses for ventilation and air-conditioning
    - Application of automatic gravitation ventilation system;
    - Installation of ventilators in indoor spaces and on the windows;
    - Application of micro ventilation systems with inflowing air heating and supply control valve
    - Elimination of draught in indoor spaces;
    - Application of stepped and stepless speed control generators in active ventilation systems;
    - Usage of controllers in system control;
    - Application of water-filled refrigerants in cooling aggregates for excessive heat discharge;
    - Heating of inflowing air due to exhaust (outgoing) air cooling;
    -  Application of heat pumps for outgoing air cooling;
    - Application of reverse cycle heat pumps in basements for cooling of the air, supplied in positive input ventilations.
  4. Hot and cold water saving
    - Installation of communal (individual for each house) hot and cold water meters;
    - Installation of water flow counters in flats;
    - Installation of water flow counters in spaces, which have individual (isolated) consumption;
    - Installation of monostat (pressure stabilizer) will help to achieve pressure reduction and pressure balance at the building’s floors;
    - Thermal insulation of DHW (domestic hot water) pipelines (inlet pipeline and circulation line);
    - Heating of the supplied cold water (from heat pump, from reversed delivery water, etc.);
    -  Installation of economically efficient shower heads;
    -  Installation of reverse osmosis faucets and mixer taps;
    - Installation of ball valves in places of collective water intake;
    - installation of two – section sink;
    - installation of dual mode toilet tank;   
    -  Application of mixer taps with automatic temperature control;
  5. Electric energy saving
    - Replacement of incandescent light bulbs at the communal entrance hallway to energy saving light lamps;
    - Application of the microprocessor control systems in Variable Frequency Drives of elevator motors;
    - Replacement of applicable luminous street lamps for light – emitting diode lamps;
    - Application of photoacoustic relay switch for light source controllable switch-on in the basements, service floors and in communal entrance hallways.
    - Installation of reactive power compensators;
    - Popularization of energy efficient household (energy efficacy class –A+ A++) appliances application;
    - Application of solar batteries for building’s illumination;
    - Modernization of all electricity mains in the house, replacing the old low voltage equipment;
    - Installation of automatized data measuring system for revenue metering;
  6. Gas saving        
    - Application of energy efficient gas burners in furnace systems of portacabin boiler house;
    - Application of climate control systems for gas burners control in flat’s heating systems;
    - Home use of energy efficient gas stoves with ceramic infrared red emitter and automatic program control;
    - Popularization of economy mode application during open flame gas burners usage;

Energy audit, energy service contracts, energy management system will help to distinguish and to plan group of actions, aimed to reduce the costs for fuel and energy resources. Potential value of saving after the implementation of these programs can comprise about from 3%up to 15% from annual energy resources consumption payment.

One of the most important ecological tasks for today is the solution of domestic and industrial waste problem. Today, only small part – 3-5% of solid domestic waste is involved in recycling, 4% is burnt, and the rest of waste is buried in landfills. In comparison with European countries, over 80% of solid domestic waste is recycled. Organic waste and sewage effluents can be supplied to biogas power stations for biogas production, which is later used for electric ad heat energy generation.